When we prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS, we must make certain estimates and assumptions about our business. These estimates and assumptions in turn affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in the financial statements.

In this section, we provide detailed information on these important estimates and assumptions which are under continuous evaluation by the Company.

Intangible assets, goodwill and property, plant and equipment

The values associated with identifiable intangible assets and goodwill involve significant estimates and assumptions, including those with respect to future cash inflows and outflows, discount rates and asset lives. These significant estimates require considerable judgment which could affect Yellow Pages’ future results if the current estimates of future performance and fair values change. These determinations may affect the amount of amortization expense on identifiable intangible assets recognized in future periods and impairment of goodwill, intangible assets and property, plant and equipment.

Yellow Pages assesses impairment by comparing the recoverable amount of an identifiable intangible asset or goodwill with its carrying value. The determination of the recoverable amount involves significant management judgment. During 2012, it was determined that the recoverable amount of goodwill was $nil. As such, its carrying value was written-off in its entirety.

Yellow Pages performed its annual test for impairment of indefinite life intangible assets in accordance with the policy described in Note 3.12 of the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements of Yellow Pages Limited for the year ended December 31, 2014.

The recoverable amount of the cash generating units (CGUs) was determined based on the value-in-use approach using a discounted cash flow model which relies on significant key assumptions, including after-tax cash flows forecasted over an extended period of time, terminal growth rates and discount rates. We use published statistics or seek advice where possible when determining the assumptions we use. Details of Yellow Pages’ impairment reviews are disclosed in Note 4 of the Audited Consolidated Financial Statements of Yellow Pages Limited for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013.

Employee future benefits

The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid and that have terms to maturity approximating the terms of the related pension liability. Determination of the benefit expense requires assumptions such as the expected return on assets available to fund pension obligations, the discount rate to measure obligations, the projected age of employees upon retirement, the expected rate of future compensation and the expected healthcare cost trend rate. For the purpose of calculating the expected return on plan assets, the assets are valued at fair value. Actual results may differ from results which are estimated based on assumptions.

Income taxes

Estimation of income taxes includes evaluating the recoverability of deferred tax assets based on an assessment of Yellow Pages’ ability to utilize the underlying future tax deductions against future taxable income before they expire. Yellow Pages’ assessment is based upon existing tax laws and estimates of future taxable income. If the assessment of Yellow Pages’ ability to utilize the underlying future tax deductions changes, Yellow Pages would be required to recognize more or fewer of the tax deductions as assets, which would decrease or increase the income tax expense in the period in which this is determined.

Yellow Pages is subject to taxation in numerous jurisdictions. Significant judgement is required in determining the consolidated provision for taxation. There are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain during the ordinary course of business. Yellow Pages maintains provisions for uncertain tax positions that it believes appropriately reflect its risk with respect to tax matters under active discussion, audit, dispute or appeal with tax authorities, or which are otherwise considered to involve uncertainty. These provisions for uncertain tax positions are made using the best estimate of the amount expected to be paid based on a qualitative assessment of all relevant factors. Yellow Pages reviews the adequacy of these provisions at each statement of financial position date. However, it is possible that at some future date an additional liability could result from audits by tax authorities. Where the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts that were initially recorded, such differences will affect the tax provisions in the period in which such determination is made.

Accounting Standards

The following revised standards are effective for annual periods beginning on January 1, 2014 and their adoption has not had any impact on the amounts reported in our Audited Consolidated Financial Statements for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, but may affect the accounting for future transactions or arrangements:

IFRIC 21 —Levies

On May 20, 2013, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issued IFRIC 21 — Levies, an interpretation on the accounting for levies imposed by governments. The interpretation clarifies that the obligating event that gives rise to a liability to pay a levy is the activity described in the relevant legislation that triggers the payment of the levy. The interpretation includes guidance illustrating how the interpretation should be applied. IFRIC 21 requires retrospective application.

IAS 32 — Financial Instruments: Presentation in respect of Offsetting

On December 16, 2011, the IASB and Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued common disclosure requirements that are intended to help investors and other users better assess the effect or potential effect of offsetting arrangements on a company's financial position. As part of this project, the IASB clarified aspects of IAS 32 — Financial Instruments: Presentation. IAS 32 amendments require retrospective application.

Amendments to IAS 36 — Impairment, Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets

On May 29, 2013, the IASB issued Recoverable Amount Disclosures for Non-Financial Assets (Amendments to IAS 36). These narrow-scope amendments to IAS 36 — Impairment of Assets, address the disclosure of information about the recoverable amount of impaired assets if that amount is based on fair value less costs of disposal. These amendments require retrospective application.

Amendments to IAS 39 — Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement: Novation of Derivatives and Continuation of Hedge Accounting

On June 27, 2013, the IASB issued Amendments to IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement: Novation of Derivatives and Continuation of Hedge Accounting. These narrow-scope amendments will allow hedge accounting to continue in a situation where a derivative, which has been designated as a hedging instrument, is novated to effect clearing with a central counterparty as a result of laws or regulation, if specific conditions are met (in this context, a novation indicates that parties to a contract agree to replace their original counterparty with a new one). Similar relief is included in IFRS 9 — Financial Instruments. The amendments require retrospective application.

STANDARDS, INTERPRETATIONS AND AMENDMENTS TO PUBLISHED STANDARDS THAT ARE ISSUED BUT NOT YET EFFECTIVE

Amendments to IAS 16 — Property, Plant and Equipment, and IAS 38 — Intangible Assets: Clarification of Acceptable Methods of Depreciation and Amortization

In May 2014, the IASB issued Amendments to IAS 16 – Property, Plant and Equipment and IAS 38 – Intangible Assets: Clarification of Acceptable Methods of Depreciation and Amortization to clarify that the use of revenue-based methods to calculate depreciation is not appropriate as revenue generated by an activity that includes the use of an asset generally reflects factors other than the consumption of the economic benefits embodied in the related asset. The IASB also clarified that revenue is generally presumed to be an inappropriate basis for measuring the consumption of the economic benefits embodied in an intangible asset. This presumption may be rebutted in certain limited circumstances. These amendments must be applied prospectively for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2016.

The Amendments to IAS 16 and IAS 38 are not expected to have a significant impact on the consolidated financial statements of Yellow Pages Limited.

IFRS 15 — Revenue from Contracts with Customers

In May 2014, the IASB issued IFRS 15 — Revenue from Contracts with Customers. This new standard outlines a single comprehensive model for companies to use when accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers. It supersedes the IASB’s current revenue recognition standards, including IAS 18 — Revenue and related interpretations. The core principle of IFRS 15 is that revenue is recognized at an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services, applying the following five steps:

  • Identify the contract with a customer;
  • Identify the performance obligations in the contract;
  • Determine the transaction price;
  • Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
  • Recognize revenue when (or as) the company satisfies a performance obligation.

This new standard also provides guidance relating to the accounting for contract costs as well as for the measurement and recognition of gains and losses arising from the sale of certain non-financial assets. Additional disclosures will also be required under the new standard, which is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2017 with earlier adoption permitted. For comparative amounts, companies have the option of using either a full retrospective approach or a modified retrospective approach as set out in the new standard. Yellow Pages Limited continues to evaluate the impact this standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.

IFRS 9 — Financial Instruments

In July 2014, the IASB issued the final version of IFRS 9 — Financial Instruments. IFRS 9 replaces the requirements in IAS 39 — Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement for classification and measurement of financial assets and liabilities. The new standard introduces a single classification and measurement approach for financial instruments, which is driven by cash flow characteristics and the business model in which an asset is held. This single, principle-based approach replaces existing rule-based requirements and results in a single impairment model being applied to all financial instruments. IFRS 9 also modified the hedge accounting model to incorporate the risk management practices of an entity.

Additional disclosures will also be required under the new standard. The new standard will come into effect for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018 with early adoption permitted. Yellow Pages Limited continues to evaluate the impact this standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.